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表单格式化插件jquery.serializeJSON教程

前端在处理含有大量数据提交的表单时,除了使用Form直接提交刷新页面之外,经常碰到的需求是收集表单信息成数据对象,Ajax提交。 而在处理复杂的表单时...

前端在处理含有大量数据提交的表单时,除了使用Form直接提交刷新页面之外,经常碰到的需求是收集表单信息成数据对象,Ajax提交。

而在处理复杂的表单时,需要一个一个区手动判断处理字段值,显得非常麻烦。接下来介绍的插件将解决这个问题。

关于serializeJSON

使用jquery.serializeJSON,可以在基于jQuery或者Zepto的页面中,调用 .serializeJSON() 方法来序列化form表单的数据成JS对象。

使用

只需要在jQuery或者Zepto时候引入即可

 <script type="text/javascript" src="jquery.js"></script>
<script type="text/javascript" src="jquery.serializejson.js"></script>

示例

HTML form(支持input、textarea、select等标签)

<form id="my-profile">
  <!-- simple attribute -->
  <input type="text" name="fullName"       value="Mario Izquierdo" />
 
  <!-- nested attributes -->
  <input type="text" name="address[city]"     value="San Francisco" />
  <input type="text" name="address[state][name]" value="California" />
  <input type="text" name="address[state][abbr]" value="CA" />
 
  <!-- array -->
  <input type="text" name="jobbies[]"       value="code" />
  <input type="text" name="jobbies[]"       value="climbing" />
 
  <!-- textareas, checkboxes ... -->
  <textarea       name="projects[0][name]">serializeJSON</textarea>
  <textarea       name="projects[0][language]">javascript</textarea>
  <input type="hidden"  name="projects[0][popular]" value="0" />
  <input type="checkbox" name="projects[0][popular]" value="1" checked />
 
  <textarea       name="projects[1][name]">tinytest.js</textarea>
  <textarea       name="projects[1][language]">javascript</textarea>
  <input type="hidden"  name="projects[1][popular]" value="0" />
  <input type="checkbox" name="projects[1][popular]" value="1"/>
 
  <!-- select -->
  <select name="selectOne">
    <option value="paper">Paper</option>
    <option value="rock" selected>Rock</option>
    <option value="scissors">Scissors</option>
  </select>
 
  <!-- select multiple options, just name it as an array[] -->
  <select multiple name="selectMultiple[]">
    <option value="red" selected>Red</option>
    <option value="blue" selected>Blue</option>
    <option value="yellow">Yellow</option>
  </select>
</form>

javascript:

$(‘#my-profile‘).serializeJSON();
 
// returns =>
{
  fullName: "Mario Izquierdo",
 
  address: {
  city: "San Francisco",
  state: {
    name: "California",
    abbr: "CA"
    }
  },
 
  jobbies: ["code", "climbing"],
 
  projects: {
    ‘0‘: { name: "serializeJSON", language: "javascript", popular: "1" },
    ‘1‘: { name: "tinytest.js",  language: "javascript", popular: "0" }
  },
 
  selectOne: "rock",
  selectMultiple: ["red", "blue"]
}

serializeJSON方法返回一个JS对象,并非JSON字符串。可以使用 JSON.stringify 转换成字符串(注意IE8兼容性)。

JavaScript权威指南(第6版)(中文版) http://www.gooln.com/document/452.html

 var jsonString = JSON.stringify(obj);

指定数据类型

获取到的属性值一般是字符串,可以通过HTML指定类型 : type 进行强制转换。

<form>
  <input type="text" name="notype"      value="default type is :string"/>
  <input type="text" name="string:string"  value=":string type overrides parsing options"/>
  <input type="text" name="excluded:skip"  value="Use :skip to not include this field in the result"/>
 
  <input type="text" name="number[1]:number"      value="1"/>
  <input type="text" name="number[1.1]:number"     value="1.1"/>
  <input type="text" name="number[other stuff]:number" value="other stuff"/>
 
  <input type="text" name="boolean[true]:boolean"   value="true"/>
  <input type="text" name="boolean[false]:boolean"   value="false"/>
  <input type="text" name="boolean[0]:boolean"     value="0"/>
 
  <input type="text" name="null[null]:null"      value="null"/>
  <input type="text" name="null[other stuff]:null"   value="other stuff"/>
 
  <input type="text" name="auto[string]:auto"     value="text with stuff"/>
  <input type="text" name="auto[0]:auto"        value="0"/>
  <input type="text" name="auto[1]:auto"        value="1"/>
  <input type="text" name="auto[true]:auto"      value="true"/>
  <input type="text" name="auto[false]:auto"      value="false"/>
  <input type="text" name="auto[null]:auto"      value="null"/>
  <input type="text" name="auto[list]:auto"      value="[1, 2, 3]"/>
 
  <input type="text" name="array[empty]:array"     value="[]"/>
  <input type="text" name="array[list]:array"     value="[1, 2, 3]"/>
 
  <input type="text" name="object[empty]:object"    value="{}"/>
  <input type="text" name="object[dict]:object"    value=‘{"my": "stuff"}‘/>
</form>
$(‘form‘).serializeJSON();
 
// returns =>
{
  "notype": "default type is :string",
  "string": ":string type overrides parsing options",
  // :skip type removes the field from the output
  "number": {
    "1": 1,
    "1.1": 1.1,
    "other stuff": NaN, // <-- Other stuff parses as NaN (Not a Number)
  },
  "boolean": {
    "true": true,
    "false": false,
    "0": false, // <-- "false", "null", "undefined", "", "0" parse as false
  },
  "null": {
    "null": null, // <-- "false", "null", "undefined", "", "0" parse as null
    "other stuff": "other stuff"
  },
  "auto": { // works as the parseAll option
    "string": "text with stuff",
    "0": 0,     // <-- parsed as number
    "1": 1,     // <-- parsed as number
    "true": true,  // <-- parsed as boolean
    "false": false, // <-- parsed as boolean
    "null": null,  // <-- parsed as null
    "list": "[1, 2, 3]" // <-- array and object types are not auto-parsed
  },
  "array": { // <-- works using JSON.parse
    "empty": [],
    "not empty": [1,2,3]
  },
  "object": { // <-- works using JSON.parse
    "empty": {},
    "not empty": {"my": "stuff"}
  }
}

数据类型也可以指定在 data-value-type 属性中,代替 :type 标记。

<form>
 <input type="text" name="number[1]"   data-value-type="number" value="1"/>
 <input type="text" name="number[1.1]"  data-value-type="number" value="1.1"/>
 <input type="text" name="boolean[true]" data-value-type="boolean" value="true"/>
 <input type="text" name="null[null]"  data-value-type="null"  value="null"/>
 <input type="text" name="auto[string]" data-value-type="auto"  value="0"/>
</form>

options配置

默认配置

Values始终为字符串(除非在input names使用:types )

Keys始终为字符串(默认不自动检测是否需要转换为数组)

未选择的checkboxes会被忽略

disabled的elements会被忽略

自定义配置

包含未勾选的checkboxes

serializeJSON 支持 checkboxUncheckedValue 配置,或者可以在checkboxes添加 data-unchecked-value 属性。

默认方法:

<form>
 <input type="checkbox" name="check1" value="true" checked/>
 <input type="checkbox" name="check2" value="true"/>
 <input type="checkbox" name="check3" value="true"/>
</form>
$(‘form‘).serializeJSON();
 
// returns =>
{‘check1‘: ‘true‘} // Note that check2 and check3 are not included because they are not checked

上面的写法会忽略未勾选的复选框。如果需要包含,则可以使用以下方法:

1. 配置checkboxUncheckedValue

$(‘form‘).serializeJSON({checkboxUncheckedValue: "false"});
 
// returns =>
{‘check1‘: ‘true‘, check2: ‘false‘, check3: ‘false‘}

2. 添加data-unchecked-value属性

<form id="checkboxes">
 <input type="checkbox" name="checked[bool]" value="true" data-unchecked-value="false" checked/>
 <input type="checkbox" name="checked[bin]"  value="1"  data-unchecked-value="0"   checked/>
 <input type="checkbox" name="checked[cool]" value="YUP"                checked/>
 
 <input type="checkbox" name="unchecked[bool]" value="true" data-unchecked-value="false" />
 <input type="checkbox" name="unchecked[bin]"  value="1"  data-unchecked-value="0" />
 <input type="checkbox" name="unchecked[cool]" value="YUP" /> <!-- No unchecked value specified -->
</form>
$(‘form#checkboxes‘).serializeJSON(); // Note no option is used
 
// returns =>
{
 ‘checked‘: {
  ‘bool‘: ‘true‘,
  ‘bin‘:  ‘1‘,
  ‘cool‘: ‘YUP‘
 },
 ‘unchecked‘: {
  ‘bool‘: ‘false‘,
  ‘bin‘: ‘0‘
  // Note that unchecked cool does not appear, because it doesn‘t use data-unchecked-value
 }
}

自动检测转换类型

默认的类型为字符串 :string ,可以通过配置转换为其它类型

$(‘form‘).serializeJSON({parseNulls: true, parseNumbers: true});
 
// returns =>
{
 "bool": {
  "true": "true", // booleans are still strings, because parseBooleans was not set
  "false": "false",
 }
 "number": {
  "0": 0, // numbers are parsed because parseNumbers: true
  "1": 1,
  "2.2": 2.2,
  "-2.25": -2.25,
 }
 "null": null, // "null" strings are converted to null becase parseNulls: true
 "string": "text is always string",
 "empty": ""
}

在极少数情况下,可以使用自定义转换函数

var emptyStringsAndZerosToNulls = function(val, inputName) {
 if (val === "") return null; // parse empty strings as nulls
 if (val === 0) return null; // parse 0 as null
 return val;
}
 
$(‘form‘).serializeJSON({parseWithFunction: emptyStringsAndZerosToNulls, parseNumbers: true});
 
// returns =>
{
 "bool": {
  "true": "true",
  "false": "false",
 }
 "number": {
  "0": null, // <-- parsed with custom function
  "1": 1,
  "2.2": 2.2,
  "-2.25": -2.25,
 }
 "null": "null",
 "string": "text is always string",
 "empty": null // <-- parsed with custom function
}

自定义类型

可以使用 customTypes 配置自定义类型或者覆盖默认类型($.serializeJSON.defaultOptions.defaultTypes)

<form>
 <input type="text" name="scary:alwaysBoo" value="not boo"/>
 <input type="text" name="str:string"   value="str"/>
 <input type="text" name="number:number"  value="5"/>
</form>
$(‘form‘).serializeJSON({
 customTypes: {
  alwaysBoo: function(str) { // value is always a string
   return "boo";
  },
  string: function(str) { // all strings will now end with " override"
   return str + " override";
  }
 }
});
 
// returns =>
{
 "scary": "boo",    // <-- parsed with type :alwaysBoo
 "str": "str override", // <-- parsed with new type :string (instead of the default)
 "number": 5,      // <-- the default :number still works
}

忽略空表单字段

// Select only imputs that have a non-empty value
$(‘form :input[value!=""]‘).serializeJSON();
 
// Or filter them from the form
obj = $(‘form‘).find(‘input‘).not(‘[value=""]‘).serializeJSON();
 
// For more complicated filtering, you can use a function
obj = $form.find(‘:input‘).filter(function () {
     return $.trim(this.value).length > 0
   }).serializeJSON();

使用整数keys作为数组的顺序

使用useIntKeyAsArrayIndex配置

<form>
 <input type="text" name="arr[0]" value="foo"/>
 <input type="text" name="arr[1]" value="var"/>
 <input type="text" name="arr[5]" value="inn"/>
</form>

按照默认的方法,结果为:

$(‘form‘).serializeJSON();
 
// returns =>
{‘arr‘: {‘0‘: ‘foo‘, ‘1‘: ‘var‘, ‘5‘: ‘inn‘ }}
 

使用useIntKeyAsArrayIndex可以将记过转换为数组并制定顺序

$(‘form‘).serializeJSON({useIntKeysAsArrayIndex: true});
 
// returns =>
{‘arr‘: [‘foo‘, ‘var‘, undefined, undefined, undefined, ‘inn‘]}

默认配置Defaults

所有的默认配置均定义在 $.serializeJSON.defaultOptions,可以进行修改。

$.serializeJSON.defaultOptions.parseAll = true; // parse booleans, numbers and nulls by default
 
$(‘form‘).serializeJSON(); // No options => then use $.serializeJSON.defaultOptions
 
// returns =>
{
 "bool": {
  "true": true,
  "false": false,
 }
 "number": {
  "0": 0,
  "1": 1,
  "2.2": 2.2,
  "-2.25": -2.25,
 }
 "null": null,
 "string": "text is always string",
 "empty": ""
}